What is the status of the gentile in the Torah, and does a gentile who has learned Torah change his status? What is the status of a gentile scholar who learns Torah?
If by Torah you mean the Oral Torah, the conclusions brought in Halacha [which obligate the Orthodox public], the status of the gentile is one of the lowest, as Rabbi Bar Chaim wrote in his article, posted on our site.
Even the Written Torah does not allow freedom of religion and conscience. It is a commandment to kill one who believes in idols. “You shall have no other gods besides Me. You shall not make for yourself a sculptured image, or any likeness of what is in the heavens above or on the earth below, or in the waters under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve then, for I the Lord your G-d am an impassioned G-d, visiting guilt of the parents upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generations of those who reject Me” (Exodus 20:3-4). Even the gentile who is not idolatrous are discriminated against and may be loaned to at interest: “You may deduct interest from loans to foreigners” (Deuteronomy 23:21).
About one who has learned Torah, Halacha rules: “A gentile who learns Torah is liable to death… any gentile who [observed] the Sabbath is liable to death” (Maimonides Laws of Kings 10:9). We brought this Halacha in our essay The Jewish Nation Is The People Chosen To Fulfill The Purpose Of Creation.